Smooth animations with CSS will-change

In user interfaces it is very common to apply animation effects in response to user input. Some of the most common effects involving fading, sliding or zooming UI components in or out to redirect the user’s focus. In HTML/CSS this is typically achieved by modifying the opacity and transform CSS properties, by using CSS transitions, CSS animations or Javascript. What you may not realise is that setting these properties can have unexpected effects on the rendering order, and even the layout of HTML elements.

Let’s look at opacity as a first example. Imagine we have some HTML like the following:

<div id="target">
  <div class="red square"></div>
</div>
<div class="blue square"></div>

How can UIs keep up with higher resolution video?

If you buy a new TV today, the chances are it is 4K. It’s quite strange that the UIs on these TVs are still rendered at 1080p and upscaled, but that’s the reality. It means that any text and graphics in the video stream, such as football scores, are visually sharper and clearer than the TV’s own menus and app UIs.

How we test a browser

Browser testing has come a long way in the last 15 years. Back then I worked for a small embedded browser company with a test team that manually checked websites. This was tedious, and inefficient as there are only so many sites a person can visit in a day.

When I joined Ekioh, I was pleased to see they had taken a more modern approach from the start. There was a genuine passion for product stability and a strong desire to avoid the embarrassment of regression bugs.

More detail on the MotionMark test results

Ekioh’s multithreaded HTML browser is rapidly making a name for itself as being the fastest browser available. Whilst Blink based browsers like Chrome currently dominate the market, they might not be the best choice for application and middleware rendering. As the MotionMark benchmark confirms, Flow’s performance is streets ahead of the competition.

Devblog: Filling vector paths on the GPU

Since starting work on Flow, our focus for the rendering engine has been on HTML/CSS. The number of basic shapes and painting styles used in HTML/CSS is quite small, which has allowed us to create a highly specialised engine using the GPU for all painting tasks. We’ve also supported elements in Flow for a while, but until recently all canvas rendering was performed on the CPU.

Does a multithreaded browser use more power?

Recently I was discussing Flow, our multithreaded browser, with a friend of mine who questioned whether a browser using all the cores would be beneficial in battery operated products like their new smart watch. This prompted me to do some research and the results were surprisingly in favour of our multithreaded approach.

Devblog: Rendering HTML/CSS on the GPU

When rendering web pages most browsers use a general purpose graphics library to do all their drawing. For example Chrome uses the Skia graphics library. This makes sense for cross platform browsers since they can use a single drawing API and leave the implementation details to the graphics library. The graphics library can try to optimise the drawing operations using some platform specific 2D hardware acceleration, or using a 3D library such as OpenGL/DirectX to take advantage of the GPU. If there is no hardware acceleration available the graphics library can do all the drawing in software using the CPU.

Devblog: Google Mail in a clean room browser

Google Mail (Basic HTML) screenshot

Flow only recently added limited HTML form support and that lets us log into Google. We hadn’t concentrated on forms as they’re barely, if ever, used in TV UIs and there was plenty of other stuff to get on with. Pleasingly, Google Mail (Basic HTML version) rendered very well the first time we were able to log in. Full Google Mail doesn’t work yet, but it makes sense to start with the basic mode first.

Devblog: From SVG browser to HTML browser

In 2006 we started writing a clean room SVG browser, primarily targeting set-top boxes. Back then, user interfaces were written in native code (usually ugly and inflexible) or HTML (very slow). We emphasised how it was equivalent to a web browser but, rather than an HTML parser with CSS box model layout, we parsed SVG markup. SVG takes negligible time to lay out and uses CSS sparsely, so we massively outperformed HTML browsers on equivalent UIs.